brought up by hand.

Category: Daily Life | Type: Discussion | Title: Great Expectations (in Context) | Author: Charles Dickens | Ch: Chapter II

Dickens put this phrase in quotation marks. Mrs. Isabella Beeton's 900-page compendium The Book of Household Management (1861) has a section titled "Rearing By Hand." The phrase means bottle-nursed instead of breast-fed. Apparently Pip's mother died in childbirth or was too feeble to nurse him. But Dickens is also being ironic, and the quotation marks help signal that. We learn shortly that Pip's sister, Mrs. Joe, is much older and more a tormenting Fury than a protective sibling. 

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